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Intro
Schedule
Services
Sell Chometz
Clean
Kasher
Pesach Eve
Sizes
Seder

For the whole month of Nissan there is no tachanun, no fasting, and no visiting the cemetery. 

During this month we say a blessing over the blossoming fruit tree.

Passover (Pesach in Hebrew)is also known as the "holiday of freedom," because it commemorates the Jewish Exodus from Egypt following 210 years of slavery. Passover is regarded as the official "birth" of the Jewish nation, and its lessons of struggle and identity continue to form the basis of Jewish consciousness 3,300 years after the event.

The Exodus was essentially an account of Moses' prodding Pharaoh to "let my people go -- in order that we may serve the Almighty." It took a lot of convincing -- Ten Plagues in all -- but eventually the Jews walked out of Egypt in broad daylight. Seven days later, the Red Sea split, drowning the Egyptian army. Then, 50 days after the Exodus, the entire Jewish nation stood at Mount Sinai to experience divine revelation and receive the Torah.

Passover is an eight-day holiday (in Israel, seven days). It is marked by the eating of matzah, unleavened bread, and by the celebration of an elaborate Seder on the first two nights (in Israel, on the first night only).

The Seder is designed to give each Jew the experience of "going from slavery unto freedom." The seder includes telling the Exodus story as recorded in the Haggadah, eating of "slavery symbols" like bitter herbs (Marror), recounting the Ten Plagues, and drinking four cups of wine -- which correspond to the four stages of redemption as recorded in the Biblical book of Exodus. The Seder is highlighted by eating matzah as part of a festive meal.

The name "Passover" derives from the fact that during the final plague, God passed through the land and smote every firstborn Egyptian -- but made sure to "pass over" the Jewish houses.

All about Matzah

During the entire week of Passover, Jews are forbidden to eat or possess any chametz -- leavened grain. For this reason, we dispose of (or sell) all our bread, cookies, pasta, beer, etc. -- and purchase only products that are labeled "kosher for Passover." To avoid any problems of residual chametz, Jews also have special sets of dishes and pots for Passover.

Matzah is the main staple of the Passover week. The Bible gives two reasons for eating matzah. The most commonly-known is that on the morning of the Exodus, the Jews were so rushed in getting out of Egypt that the bread didn’t have time to rise -- hence they ate it unleavened.

In addition, the Bible (Exodus 12:8) states that the Jews also ate matzah the night before the Exodus -- at that first Passover Seder. That is because chametz is puffed up and represents arrogance; matzah is simple and humble. To come close to the Almighty, which is the ultimate pleasure in life, one must remove his own personal arrogance. Thus we remove chametz from our homes, and likewise work on the character trait of humility.

On the evening before Passover, there is a careful search of the home for chametz. It is done by candle light and is a memorable experience for the whole family. Any remaining chametz is either burned the next morning (in a ceremony called Be'ur Chometz), or is sold to a non-Jew for the week of Passover. The sale must be serious and legally-binding, and therefore should be done only through the assistance of a qualified rabbi. Any food that is sold must be put in a closed cabinet and taped shut.

Kitniyos

The following foods are traditionally not eaten on Pesach: rice, millet, beans (green beans are allowed), lentils, peas, corn, buckwheat, chickpeas, cumin, fennel, mustard, peanuts, tofu, seeds and more. These foods can be kept in the house – just don’t eat them. These foods can be used by small children, sick people or pets.

Important dates and times for Pesach 5778 / 2018 for Chicago

 

Purification of Vessels for Pesach

Telshe Yeshiva 3535 W. Foster 773/727-5241
Sunday, 7:30 - 9:00 pm
Monday, 7:30 - 9:00 pm
April 14
April 15

Bedikas Chometz

(the search of Chometz)
Thursday April 18

Fast of the First Born

Friday April 19

Burning of Chometz

Friday morning 8:00-11:00 am

Chicago:
Joan Dachs Bais Yakov Girls School, 3200 W Peterson Ave or Yeshiva Ohr Boruch, 2828 W. Pratt

Buffalo Grove:
Fire Department, 109 Deerfield Parkway (10:30am)

April 19

Eating of Chometz

Must stop by Friday morning, 10:11 am April 19

Destruction & Nullification of Chometz

Friday morning before 11:31 am

April 19

Yom Tov and Shabbos Candles

(with brocha "Shehecheyanu")
Friday evening, 7:15 pm April 19

First Seder

Friday evening April 19

Yom Tov Candles Second Night

(with brocha "Shehehiyanu")
Saturday evening, 8:37 pm April 20

Second Seder

Saturday evening April 20

1st night of Counting of the Omer

Saturday evening April 20

Yom Tov Candles 7th day

(no brocha "Shehecheyanu")
Thursday evening, 7:22 pm April 25

Yom Tov Candles 8th day

(no brocha "Shehecheyanu")
Friday evening, 8:43 pm April 26

Yizkor

Shabbos morning 10:30 am April 27

 

Friday, April 19, Erev Pesach

Shabbos and Yom tov candlelighting with "Shehecheyanu" 7:15 PM
Mincha 7:00 PM 
Maariv - First Day of Pesach 7:35 PM
First Seder 8:35 PM

Shabbos, April 20, First Pesach day

Shacharis 9:00 AM
Mincha 7:05 PM
Shiur/class 7:35 PM
Maariv - Second Day of Pesach 8:05 PM
Candlelighting with Shehecheyanu 8:37 PM

Sunday, April 21, Second Pesach day

Shacharis 9:00 AM
Mincha 7:15 PM 
Shiur/class 7:35 PM 
Maariv 8:25 PM
Yom Tov over 8:38 PM

Monday, April 22 - Thursday, April 25, Chol Hamoed

Thursday evening, April 25 Seventh Day of Pesach

Candlelighting, NO SHEHECHEYANU 7:22 PM
Mincha 7:20 PM 
Shiur 7:35 PM
Maariv - Seventh Day of Pesach 7:50 PM 

Friday, April 26, Seventh Day of Pesach

Shacharis 9:00 AM
Mincha 7:20 PM 
Shiur/class 7:35 PM
Maariv 8:30 PM
Candlelighting, NO SHEHECHEYANU 8:43 PM

Shabbos, April 27, Eights Day of Pesach

Shacharis 9:00 AM
Shir HaShirim - Song of Songs 10:00 AM
Yizkor 11:15 AM
Mincha 7:25 PM 
Neilas haChag -bring your leftover food 7:40 PM
Maariv 8:15 PM
Yom tov is over 8:23 PM

 

 
Regardless how well you clean and search you house, everyone should sell their remaining chometz by filling out THIS FORM. PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU SIGN THE FORM  and bring it to rabbi Dimarsky. If you cannot bring the form in person, mail it to Heritage, 2941 W. Touhy Ave. Chicago IL 60645 or fax it to 1-866-211-8480. We need to receive your mail or fax no later then 11:00 PM of Thursday night, March 29, 2018. Forms received later that time will not be processed. 

If one finds chometz on Yom Tov, one should cover the chometz (because it is muktza) and burn it after Yom Tov.

This halacha only applies if one did not sell his chometz to a gentile. However, if one sells chometz to a gentile, this sale includes all chometz, wherever it may be found. Therefore, if one discovers pretzels in a drawer or bagel chips in a coat pocket on Pesach, one may not burn this chometz as it belongs to the gentile to whom the Rabbi sold the chometz! Rather, one should store the item with the “locked up” chometz sold to the gentile. On Yom Tov, one should cover it and lock it up on Chol Hamoed. It may be eaten after Pesach when the chometz is purchased back.

Chometz which was accidentally bought or acquired on Pesach should be destroyed immediately.

If one receives chometz in the mail or with the newspaper on Erev Pesach (after the 5th halachic hour) or on Pesach, one should not assume ownership of the item but rather leave the chometz outside. If mail is delivered through a mail slot into one’s home, have intent not to acquire the chometz (i.e. do not take legal possession) and kick it or push it outside with a stick to avoid handling it. If it is still around after Pesach, one may assume ownership at that time, and use it, provided that the sender is a gentile.

 
The Torah forbids a Jew to own, eat or get benefit from chometz during Pesach. The Torah also requires us to physically destroy our chometz.

We clean for Pesach to get rid of chometz, since we are not allowed to own it. Another reason is that we might find and accidentally eat it. As a double precaution we declare that the rest of the chometz which we didn’t find should be void. This way even if we find our chometz during Pesach it is technically not ours and we are not violating Torah law.

We clean only those places where we might accidentally come across and eat chometz. These places have to be cleaned even from the crumbs. Following this logic, we don’t need to clean behind or under heavy appliances or furniture, or in places where chometz is never brought in.

Cleaning for Pesach includes:

Our home, our work place, car, garage.
Toys which will be used during Pesach have to be cleaned.
Clothes which will be worn during Pesach have to be cleaned from crumbs
Dining room and kitchen tables have to be thoroughly cleaned and covered.
Chairs have to be cleaned.
Year round bentchers (prayer after meal books) shouldn’t be used.
Carpeted floors are sufficient to vacuum. Other types of floors need to be swept and washed.
Bookshelves – just light cleaning. Books don’t have to be removed or opened.

Not edible chometz has to be removed only if it is a size of kezais-olive (size of a standard slice of bread)

 

Preparing the kitchen

There are 3 main ways to kasher utensils: by cleaning, by hagalah and by libun.

Cleaning means cleaning with detergent
Hagalah means using hot boiling water. If cleaning the surface, like kitchen counter, the hot water is poured onto the counter. In the case of cleaning utensils, they have to be completely clean, not used for hot for 24 hours and then immersed into the boiling water. The pot, used to boil water doesn't have to be kosher for Pesach (but of course it has to be kosher and clean).
Libun means making the object hot (sometimes glowing) by heating it with the direct fire.

Pots, pot covers – hagalah
Spits, frying pans – libun
Spoons, forks – hagalah. If have plastic or wooden handles – can’t be kashered
Knives – if have plastic or wooden handles, buy new ones.
Silver Kiddush cup, small cups and saucer – hagalah
China, earthenware, porcelain – cannot be kashered
Drinking glasses, pitchers – soak 72 hours in soapy water, changing water every 24 hours.
Corningware, Correle, Pyrex, Duralex – should’t be kahsered.
Hand towels, tablecloths can be washed.
Smooth wooded cutting board can be kashered by hagala or by sending.
Plastic tablecloths cannot be kashered.
Wooden tables and benches should be cleaned and covered.
Formaica counter should be washed and covered.
Baby Bottle Since they have come in contact with chometz (e.g. washed with dishes, boiled in chometz pot), new ones should be purchased.
Baby High Chair Thoroughly clean.  Preferable to cover the tray with contact paper. Kitchen drawers, cabinet shelves should be cleaned and covered.

Refrigerator, freezer should be just cleaned.
Can Opener Manual or Electric – Clean thoroughly.
Candlesticks/Tray Clean thoroughly.
Bite Plates, Braces Clean thoroughly after finishing to eat chometz.
Washing cup used in kitchen: Metal – Hagola. Plastic: Put away with chometz dishes
One should buy kosher for Pesach dish soap.

Kitchen sink:

- Porcelain or enamel sinks should be covered with contact paper or aluminum foil.
- Steel sinks should be cleaned, not be used with hot water for 24 h. and then kashered by hagalah.

Faucets, spouts and it’s strainers should be cleaned well before hagalah.
Dishwasher – shouldn’t be kashered for Pesach
Hot water urn – better to buy a new one. In case of a need, the old one can be cleaned and filled till the top with water and boiled. Spout should be cleaned.
Coffee maker – buy a new one.
Graters, grinders should not be kashered for Pesach.
Mixers, food processors, blenders – if were used for making dough or cake– cannot be kashered. If were used for fruits, vegetables, meat, fish etc. have to be cleaned, bowl and blades need hagalah or need to be replaced.
Toaster should be cleaned and put away.
All paper ware and plastic silverware can be used for Pesach

Gas stove:

Clean burners, grates, the pans under the grates and the stove surface. Turn the burners on. Put on the grates pots with water for 15 minutes. Cover the stove surface with the aluminum foil, cutting out the holes for the burners. (Some people cover the grates, pan under the grates and stove handles with foil too.) Alternative method do kasher grates is to clean them and put inside of the oven. While kashering oven, grates will be kashered too.

Electric or glass stoves:

Clean all the parts and the stove surface. Turn the electric burners to high for 10 minutes. Cover the stove surface with foil, cutting out the holes for the burners.

Metal blech used during the year should be replaced with the new one.

Oven:

Don’t use for 24 hours. Clean thoroughly the oven, racks and the inside of the door with Eazy-off. Set to the highest degree for 1 hour. (some people also put inside the oven a foil pan with water and keep the oven on for another ½ hour). It is very hard to clean rack well, therefore it might be better to buy new racks or to cover the old ones with foil.

Broiler part of the oven should not be koshered but should be cleaned, closed up and not used.

Self-cleaning ovens don’t need to be cleaned and can be used within 24 hours. Inside of the doors of these ovens still have to be cleaned. Set it on self-cleaning cycle and you are done. You can put the burners or other metal parts inside the oven to kasher them during the self-cleaning cycle.

Filters above the range hood should be cleaned by soaking them in the water/ammonia solution for 20 minutes.

Microwave should not be koshered for Pesach

Preparing the bathroom:

Clean everything, replace toothbrushes and toothpaste with new ones.

May not be used during Pesach: any products containing alcohol (cologne, hair spray, after shave, mouthwash, spray deodorant – anything that one theoretically can drink) should be thrown away or locked up and sold.

May be used during Pesach: nail polish, polish remover, hand lotion, creams, shampoos, shoe polish, ink, paint, air freshener, powders, stick deodorant, eye shadow, liner, mascara, blush, soap (can’t drink those). The custom is to buy kosher for Pesach toothpaste, mouthwash and lipstick.

Medicine

Passover Medicines and Cosmetics Guide click HERE

Bitter, tasteless medicine, eye drops and other drops may be used for Pesach. Medicine that has to be chewed and has pleasant taste needs to be kosher for Pesach. Always consult your doctor and rabbi about specific medicine. Vitamins need to be kosher for Pesach.

As a general rule, whenever possible it is better to buy all the food before Pesach. Because before Pesach even if there is some chometz, it is annulled in the rest of the product. All milk products should be purchased before Pesach.

Another general rule: all food (except for fresh fruit and vegetables) require Kosher for Pesach supervision. They include but not limited to: juices, soda, canned food, dried food, ketchup, mayonnaise, sugar, spices, coffee, tea, milk, butter, cheese, baby food.

Kitniyos

The following foods are traditionally not eaten on Pesach: rice, millet, beans (green beans are allowed), lentils, peas, corn, buckwheat, chickpeas, cumin, fennel, mustard, peanuts, tofu, seeds and more. These foods can be kept in the house – just don’t eat them. These foods can be used by small children, sick people or pets.

 

THE FAST OF THE FIRST BORN

A first born male must fast on erev (eve of) pesach. If a first born is too young too fast, then his father must fast in his place.

SEDER PREPARATIONS 

As many preparations as possible for the seder that can be done before the holiday should be done at that time. This includes:

- Cutting plastic tablecloths and garbage bags from a roll.
- Opening cases and individual bottles of wine.
- Roasting the z’roah (shank bone for the seder plate).
- Roasting the egg for the seder plate. Note: The roasted egg may be eaten at the Seder.  The prohibition is only on roasted meat.
- The Charoses, since grating and grinding must be done with a ‘shinui’(change), on Yom Tov. Mixing in wine can be done on holiday night, but only to make enough for one seder.

- Salt water for dipping at the seder.

- If using romaine lettuce for marror, checking should be done before the holiday.

- Grating of horseradish. 

BEDIKAS CHOMETZ - searching for chometz

Bedikas Chometz-the search for chometz- is usually done on the night of the 14th of Nissan, and the be’ur- burning of chometz-on the morning of the 14th. If someone forgot to do the search in the evening, he should do it on the next day as soon as he remembers. One can still purchase Chometz after the night searching, but no more than necessary.

- The custom is to daven Maariv before performing the bedikah, when possible.
- Those who work late do not have to have their wives check for them; rather the bedikah can be performed when they return home.
- It is not permitted to partake of a meal before the bedikah is made. A small snack, however, is permitted.
- Once the bracha is recited, one is not permitted to speak needlessly until after the recitation of the Kol Chamira declaration of the Kol Chamira declaration at he conclusion of the bedikah.  
- Our custom is to make the bracha and begin the bedikah with a candle, since it is mentioned explicity in the Gemorah (Talmud).  Afterwards, though, one is permitted to continue with a flashlight since it is less dangerous and provides better light.
- Closing the light in the room that you are checking depends on each individual’s preference.
- Since the thorough cleaning was done before this night, at this final checking we are lenient and we only make a superficial bedikah looking primarily in those places that may have been overlooked.
- Since most times chometz is not found during the bedikah, the custom is to place ten pieces around the house so that the brocha on the bedikah will not be wasted.
- The ten pieces of bread should equal, at least, a kezayis to be able to make the bracha.  However, no single piece should equal or be large than a kezayis because if such a large piece were to be lost, the entire house would have to be checked until it was found.  If the piece is less that a kezayis, then the law of bitul (voiding) will work and the piece can be ignored.
- Cars and other vehicles do not have to be checked at this time provided they were cleaned thoroughly beforehand.  The same applies to pockets of clothing that have been cleaned.
- If you own an office or store that you will be using on Chol Hamoed (the intermediate days of the holiday), it must be cleaned as if it were your home. Ideally this bedikah should begin after nightfall with the bracha and then continue at one’s home. When this is not possible, the bedikah for the store or place of employment can be done during the day (no bracha is made).
- If the store or place of employment will not be used at all on the holiday, it can be locked up and all chometz inside must be sold.
- If you are leaving home for Pesach, you should check your home the night before you leave.
- If you are staying in a hotel for Pesach, you must make a bedikah the night before Pesach in your room.
- Every Jew must sell their chometz before Pesach. If one knows that he will be eating by relatives after Pesach who do not sell their chometz, one is permitted to sell their chometz without their permission or knowledge.  You are abel to do this because of the rule that one is permitted to perform beneficial acts for other even without their awareness.  After Pesach it will be permitted to eat in their home.
- Most animal food contains chometz and one must check before Pesach to be certain that they are not feeding their pet(s) chometz on Pesach.
- Anything that is soled to a non-Jew for Pesach does not have to be cleaned.

Chometz Checklist

Before we are ready for Bedikas Chometz we must have finished the major part of our house cleaning.
Below is an alphabetical list on which you can check off the items that were already cleaned

Aquarium (most fish food is chometz)
Arts and Crafts projects containing painted noodles, macaroni or other chometz
Automobile (floors, glove compartment, trunk,
under seats, etc.)
Baking oven and the hood
Bar (most alcoholic beverages are chometz)
Basement (if not planning to use - close and sell)
Benchers (Grace after meal booklets)
Bird cages
Bread boxes (clean and store)
Briefcases
Books (just those which are usually brought to the table)
Cabinets
Car seats
Carpet sweepers
Carriages
Closets
Clothes (pockets and cuffs).
Cookie jars, candy dishes (clean and store)
Cribs
Desk and draws
Fish tank (most fish food is chometz)
Floors and carpets
Furniture
Garage and workshops
Garbage cans and pails
(get new broom)
Halls
High chair
Jewelry and cosmetic boxes
Lunch boxes (clean and store)
Medicine chest (consult an Orthodox Rabbi if you intend to use medications or vitamins on Pesach)
Office, store or factory
Pet house (most animal food is chometz)
Picnic box (clean and store)
Play-Doh
Playpen
Playroom
Porches
Purses
Safe
School lockers
Shelves and bookcases
Shopping carts
Storage room
Strollers
Toaster (clean and store)
Toothbrush (get a new one)
Toys, toy chest, toy house
Travel bags
Under radiators
Vacuum cleaner and bags
Window sills

 
Required Amounts of Foods and Beverages for Pesach Seder 

(click HERE to download the sizes template)

MINIMUM SIZE OF WINE CUPS (KOSOS)


1. For the Arbah Kosos(Four Cups) and for Kiddush (except on Friday night) and for Havdalah the cup must be at least 3.3 fluid ounces in size.
2. When the Seder is on Friday evening, the Kiddush Cup should be at least 4.42 fluid ounces in size. This also applies to the Kiddush Cup used every Friday evening, throughout the year.

Note: If one recites the Kiddush on behalf of the assembled when the Seder occurs on Friday night, then the cup of the one reciting tht Kiddush must be at least 4.42 fluid ounces, while the cups of the assembled (who must each drink his or her cup to fulfill the mitzvah of the First of the Four Cups) can be 3.3 fluid ounces in size.

MINIMUM STRENGTH OF WINE


1. Full strength wine (without diluting) is required for the Arbah Kosos(Four Cups).
2. Only, if one's health does not permit this, then one may dilute the wine with the least amount of grape juice possible. 3. If, for health reasons, one cannot use wine at all, one may substitute grape juice.
4. If one must dilute grape juice with water, the ration should not exceed 2/3 cup water to 1/3 cup arave 4 nice.
5. If one does not have enough wine to perform the Mitzvah (Kiddush, Havdalah, etc.) water may be added but not in excess of 2/15 cup) wine to 3/5 cup water.
Note: The "Brocha" upon all these mixtures is "Borei Pri haHagofen."

MINIMUM AMOUNT OF MATZAH

Each person must eat the minimum amount of Matzoh the following three times during the Seder: 1) after the Brocha Al Achilas Matzoh 2) For Korech 3) for the Afikomen.
After the Brocha, Al Achilas Matzoh and for the Afikomen, - a piece equivalent in size to 7 inches by 6 1/4 inches.
For Korech - a piece equivalent in size to 7 inches by 4 inches.
If for health reasons, one cannot eat Matzoh, then Matzoh Shmurah Meal (upon which one is permitted to recite the Hamotzee) may be substituted as follows:
After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Matzo and for Afikomen - an amount of meal that can be compacted into a vessel measuring 1.5 fluid ounces.
For Korech - an amount of meal that can be compacted into a vessel holding 1.1 fluid ounces.

MINIMUM AMOUNT OF MOROR
(bitter herbs)

Each person must eat a minimum amount of Moror during the Seder. Once after the Brocha, Al Achilas Moror, and once, for Korech If using pure, grated horseradish, use the following amounts:
1. After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Moror - an amount that can be compacted into a vessel measuring 1.1 fluid ounces. 2. For Korech - an amount that can be compacted into a vessel measuring .7 fluid ounces. If using Romaine Lettuce whole leaves, use the following amounts:
After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Morror and for Korech, enough leaves to cover an area of 8 x 10 inches. If using Romaine Lettuce Stalks only, use the following amounts:
After reciting the Brocha, Al Achilas Morror and for Korech, enough stalks to cover an area of 3 x 5 inches.
It is advisable to measure, before the beginning of the Holiday, the size of the cup to find out how many fluid ounces it holds. Then at the Seder, one can pack enough of the Matzo Meal and grated horseradish to reach the required amount.

NOTE: These minimum requirements of Kosos, Matzoh, and Moror must be complied with by women as well as men.

 
THE SEDER PLATE

There are several customs as to how the seder plate should be arranged. The general custom is that of the Arizal (i.e. the round seder plate, shown in the picture found in most haggados). Those following the custom of the Arizal place their matzah underneath the seder plate.

RECLINING

All men must recline on their left side while drinking all four kosos (cups) and while eating motzei matzah, korech (sandwich of matzah and marror) and the afikomen. A left handed person is also required to lean on his left side. A left handed person who erroneously reclined on his right side has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Preferably, one should recline on pillows or cushions.

Women are not required to recline while eating or drinking. The custom among Sefardim is for women to recline. One should not recline while reciting the haggadah or hallel, as one is supposed to recite them b’eima uv’yirah  (with fear).

Although one should recline while eating korech (the sandwich), one should not recline while eating maror (bitter herbs).

THE MITZVAH OF THE 4 KOSOS (CUPS)

Our Rabbis require one to drink four kosos of wine at the seder. These four kosos correspond to the four terminologies of redemption used to describe the final salvation from Mitzrayim (Egypt). One must use a kos that contains at least a re'veis of wine in order to make a bracha on it. Although one is only required to drink the majority of the kos, an effort should be made to drink the entire kos (see “Sizes” tab).

One should preferably use red wine for the 4 kosos. One who enjoys the taste of white wine more than red wine, may use white wine for the do/ed kosos. Preferably, the wine that is used should not be mevushol (cooked).

One should drink the required amount of wine within the shiur (amount of time), which means that one must drink the wine in two swallows with a minimal pause between them. One who is unable to drink the wine in this manner should drink it within three to four minutes. (Obviously, the faster one drinks the wine, the better it is).

One who has difficulty drinking intoxicating beverages due to a medical condition, should preferably take a smaller kos with the minimum shiur of a re'veis (3 ounces), and drink the minimum amount required. (which is little more than half the kos (1.6 ounces), rather than using grape juice. Although such a person will wind up drinking only 6.4 ounces for all four kosos, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. One who can't drink even this small amount of wine, may dilute it with grape juice or water. If even this is not possible, he may drink grape juice, or at the very least raisin wine or any other chamar medina (beverage of the land -i.e. soda).

A father is obligated to train his child to drink the four kosos. The age of training begins at approximately 5-6 years old. If a child understands the concept of the passage of the haggadah that accompanies each kos, he should be trained to drink that kos.

It is preferred that the master of the house not pour his own kos since he should be treated as a king and someone else should pour the kos for him.

A paper or plastic kos should not be used.

KARPAS

One is required to wash their hands without a bracha prior to dipping the karpas into saltwater. This halacha (law) is often only practiced on Pesach during the seder and is neglected all year round. However, this halacha does not apply solely on Pesach, and one must wash his hands with a kos (in the same manner that is done prior to eating bread) prior to dipping anything into liquid (e.g. cookies and cake into milk) all year round.

Women and children are also required to wash their hands. One should keep in mind the severity of being neglectful and not washing their hands when it is required.

The bracha of borei pri ha'adamah should be said following the dipping, so that there should be no interruption. One should have in mind that this bracha should also be for the maror, which will be eaten later on.

For karpas, a vegetable (e.g. celery or parsleyetc.) is dipped into the saltwater. Some poskim (authorities on Jewish law) hold that potatoes should not be used because it is a cooked vegetable. They explain that perhaps the reason why potatoes were traditionally used in Russia was because no other vegetable was available. One should not use a veg- etable that is acceptable to be used for maror. Many poskim say that one should recline while eating karpas. One should eat less than a kezayis of the karpas in order not to be faced with the problem of whether or not he should recite a bracha achrona (bracha recited after eating) since this is a dispute among the Rishonim (earliest Halacha authorities). One who mistakenly ate a kezayis of karpas should not recite a bracha achrona.

MAGGID 

It is more important to spend time understanding the simple translation of what is being said in the haggadah, than to spend time saying many divrei Torah. While saying the passages of Pesach, Matzah and Moror, one should make certain that the women and children are present at the table. It is not sufficient to recite these words with a simple translation, since this is the answer to the mah nishtana. The children must be present and the leader of the seder must explain to them on their level of understanding how this answers their questions. One who does not explain this to their children may not have fulfilled his obligation of sipur yetzias mitzrayim (telling over the story of the going out of Egypt). Many have a custom to point at the maror and matzah while reciting these passages. One should lift the matzah and maror while reciting their respective passages. One should not pick up the zeroah while reciting its passage.

MATZAH

Min HaTorah (Biblically) everyone, including women, is required to eat a kezayis of matzoh on the night of the seder. Chazal require us to eat the matzoh within 3-4 minutes after the bracha of al achilas matzoh is said (The faster the matzoh is eaten the better). Everyone at the table should receive two kezaysim of matzoh to eat. Machine matzah may be used to fulfill the mitzvah of matzah, but many people prefer to use hand-made shmurah matzah at the seder. Both kezaysim should be eaten simultaneously.

Although sick people may eat egg matzos during Pesach, one does not fulfill the obligation of eating matzah with them. One who cannot eat regular matzah may fulfill his obligation by eating crushed matzah. If it is impossible for such a person to eat crushed matzah, he should dip the matzah into water. This is true even if one does not normally eat gebrochts, since the mitzvah De'oraisa (commandment from the Torah) takes precedence over the minhag (custom) of not eating gebrochts. The matzah should be eaten without any other food or condiment, so that the flavor of the matzah should not mix with any other flavor. One should not talk from after reciting the bracha of al achilas matzah until after korech

THE AMOUNT OF MATZAH ONE IS REQUIRED TO EAT

All participants of the seder must eat a kezayis from an unbroken matzoh and a kezayis from the broken matzoh for a total of two kezaysim. While eating the two kezaysim during the motzei matzoh and the two kezaysim of afikoman, one may use one-quarter of an average size matzoh for the required amount of one kezayis. During korech, where one is only required to eat one kezayis, the shiur of the kezayis is measured more stringently, and one should use one-third of an average matzah. In many instances, the amount of matzah on the seder plate is not adequate to give each person sitting at the table his or her proper shiur. Therefore, some people have the custom to give each group of participants at the seder three matzos to fulfill their obligation of motzei matzah. Two matzos should be shlaimim (whole) while the third is a prusah (a matzah broken in half). This custom also enables the participants to eat the required amount of matzah within the required 3-4 minutes from when the ba'al habayis (leader of the seder) says the bracha. Likewise, one may add matzah as is needed to complete the shiur for korech and afikoman.

MAROR

Chazal require one to eat maror to remind us of the bitter galus (exile).
One may fulfill this obligation by eating any of the following vegetables: (Listed in order of preference):

Romaine lettuce,
French endives,
escarole,
horseradish.

Although Romaine lettuce is not bitter, the Yerushalmi explains that just as Romaine lettuce is sweet at first and becomes bitter afterwards (i.e. if left in the ground for a long period of time, it will become bitter) similarly, at the beginning our forefathers in Mitzrayim were treated as royalty and only afterwards were forced to do hard labor. One must be very careful to check the lettuce for insect infestation, as there may be small insects in the lettuce that are camouflaged in the folds of the leaves. While eating maror is required Miderabbanon (Rabbinically), consuming an insect is an issur Deoraisah (forbidden Biblically), and one must therefore be careful to check for infestation before using it. One who is unable to check the lettuce for insect infestation should use one of the other types of maror. One should use leaves that are fresh and moist and not dried out, for dried out leaves usually have lost their taste. Stalks that are dried out may still be used, since they retain their flavor due to their thickness. The maror may be uncovered for a while before the seder in order to lessen its bitterness. When dipping the maror into the charoses, one should be careful not to completely cover the maror with a lot of charoses thereby eliminating the maror's bitter taste, but one should shake off the charoses prior to eating the maror.

AFIKOMAN

One should eat two kezaysim of matzah for the afikoman. One kezayis corresponds to the korbon Pesach (Pesach sacrifice), and the other kezayis corresponds to the matzah eaten with the korban Pesach. After one designates and eats the two kezaysim of matzah for the afikoman, one many not eat or drink any intoxicating beverages other than the two remaining kosos. One who eats after the afikoman, must redesignate and reeat the afikoman. The afikoman should be eaten while reclining. One who did not recline and did not yet bentch (say grace after meals), should eat the afikoman again, if it is not too difficult to do so. One should hide the afikoman. It has become customary for children to ask for presents prior to returning the afikoman. If the afikoman gets lost, other matzah may be substituted in its place. The afikoman should be eaten before chatzos (halachic midnight), since it corresponds to the korbon Pesach, which could be eaten until midnight. It is preferably to recite the portion of hallel that is said after the meal prior to chatzos (midnight). One who was unable to eat the afikoman before midnight may still eat it after midnight, since some hold that the korban Pesach was allowed to be eaten past midnight. A person should also try to drink the fourth kos before chatzos.

HALLEL

One should preferably hold the kos for the entire hallel, since there is a principle to recite song over wine. If there are three people sitting at the seder, regardless of age or gender, those parts of hallel which are recited responsively in shul should be recited responsively at the seder as well.

KRIAS SHEMA (RECITING BEDTIME SHEMA PRAYER)

One is not required to say the complete order of krias shema prior to going to sleep on the two seder nights, since Hakadosh Baruch Hu (The Holy One Blessed Be He) extends an extra measure of protection on these nights. Nevertheless, one should say hamapil and the first section of krias shema.

Tetzave

Summary
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Rav Zilber in Russian
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HaShem tells Moshe to command the Jewish People to supply pure olive oil for the Menorah in the Mishkan (Tent of Meeting). He also tells Moshe to organize the making of the Bigdey Kehunah (priestly garments): a breastplate, an Ephod, a robe, a checkered tunic, a turban, a sash, a forehead-plate and linen trousers. Upon their completion, Moshe is to perform a ceremony for seven days to consecrate Aharon and his sons.

This includes offering sacrifices, dressing Aharon and his sons in their respective garments, and anointing Aharon with oil.

HaShem commands that every morning and afternoon a sheep be offered on the Altar in the Mishkan. This offering should be accompanied by a meal-offering, and libations of wine and oil. HaShem commands that an Altar for incense should be built from acacia wood and covered with gold. Aharon and his descendants should burn incense on this Altar every day. 

Oil for the Lamp

   You, [Moses], must command the Israelites to bring you clear illuminating oil, made from hand crushed olives, to keep the lamp constantly burning. Aaron and his sons shall arrange for [the lamps to burn] from evening until morning in God's presence, in the Communion Tent, outside the cloth partition that conceals the [Ark of] Testimony. It is a rule for all time that [this oil shall come] from the Israelites.

The Vestments

   [Separate] your brother Aaron and his sons from among the Israelites, [and] bring them close to you so that Aaron, and his sons, Nadav, Avihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, can become priests to Me.

   Make sacred vestments that are both dignified and beautiful for your brother Aaron.

   Speak to everyone who is naturally talented, to whom I have granted a spirit of wisdom, and let them make Aaron's vestments. These [vestments] will then be used to consecrate him and make him a priest to Me.

   These are the vestments that they shall make: a breastplate, an ephod, a robe, a knitted tunic, a turban, and a sash. Make them as sacred vestments for Aaron and his sons so that they will be able to be priests to Me.

    [The skilled workers] shall take the gold, the sky-blue, dark red and crimson wool, and, the linen.

The Ephod

    [These workers] shall make the ephod out of gold [thread], sky-blue, dark red and crimson wool, together with twined linen, in a patterned brocade. It shall have two attached shoulder pieces at its two corners, and [these] shall be sewn [to it]. The ephod's belt which is made in the same manner [as the ephod itself] shall be [woven] together with it out of gold [thread], sky-blue, dark red, and crimson wool, and twined linen.

   Take two sardonyx stones, and engrave on them the names of Israel's sons. There shall be six names on one stone, and the remaining six names on the second stone [inscribed] in the order of their birth.  The names of Israel's sons shall be engraved by a skilled jeweler, [and it shall appear] like the engraving on a signet ring.

   [These stones] shall then be placed in gold settings. Place the two stones on the two shoulder pieces of the ephod as remembrance stones for Israel's sons. Aaron shall carry their names on his two shoulders before God as a remembrance.

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The Settings

   Make gold settings. [Also] make matched cables of pure gold, braided like cords. The braided cables shall then be attached to the settings.

The Breastplate

   Make a decision breastplate. It shall be a patterned  brocade like the ephod. Make it out of gold [thread], sky-blue, dark red and crimson wool, and twined linen. When folded over, it shall be a span long and a span wide.

   Set it with four rows of mounted stones.

   The first of these rows shall contain a carnelian, an emerald and a topaz.

   The second row: carbuncle, sapphire, beryl.

   The third row: jacinth, agate amethyst.

   The fourth row: chrysolite, onyx, jasper.

   These stones shall be placed in gold settings.

   The stones shall contain the names of the twelve sons of Israel, one for each of the twelve [stones]. Each one's name shall be engraved as on a signet ring, to represent the twelve tribes.

 Make matched cables out of pure gold, braided like cords, for the breastplate. Make two gold rings for the breastplate, and attach them to the two [upper] corners of the breastplate. Attach the two gold braids to the two rings on the two corners of the breastplate. Attach the two braids on the two corners to the two settings and they shall [thus] be attached to the (two] shoulder pieces of the ephod, toward the front.

   Make two gold rings, and attach them to the two [lower] corners of the breastplate, on the edge that is toward the inside of the ephod. Make [another] two gold rings, and attach them to the bottoms of the two shoulder pieces, toward the front where they are sewn on, above the ephod's belt. Lace the [lower] rings of the breastplate to the [lower] rings of the ephod with a twist of sky-blue wool, so that [the breastplate] shall remain directly above the ephod's belt.

   Aaron will thus carry the names of Israel's sons on the decision breastplate over his heart when he comes into the sanctuary. It shall be a constant remembrance before God.

   Place the Urim and Thumim in the decision breastplate, and they shall be over Aaron's heart when he comes before God. Aaron will then carry the decision-making device for the Israelites before God at all times.

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The Robe

   Make the robe that is [worn under] the ephod completely out of sky- blue wool. It shall have an opening for the head in the middle, and this opening shall have a woven border all around it, like there is around the head opening of a coat of mail. [The neck] shall thus not be left open.

   On the bottom [of the robe], place pomegranates made of sky-blue, dark red, and crimson wool, all along its lower border. In between [these pomegranates] all around, there shall be gold bells. Thus, there shall be a gold bell and a pomegranate, a gold bell and a pomegranate, all around the lower edge of the robe.

   Aaron shall wear [this robe] when he performs the divine service. The sound [of the bells] shall be heard when he enters the sanctuary before God, and when he goes out, so that he not die.

The Other Vestments

   Make a forehead-plate of pure gold, and engrave on it in the same manner as a signet ring, [the words], "Holy to God."  Attach a twist of sky-blue wool to it, so that it can be [worn] next to the turban. It must be sky-blue [worn] right near the front of the turban.

   [This plate] shall be worn on Aaron's forehead. Aaron shall thus cam the device that expiates [errors] in the sacred offerings that the Israelites consecrate as holy gifts. It shall be on his forehead at all times to make [these offerings] acceptable for [the Israelites] before God.

   Knit the tunic out of linen.

  [Also] make the turban out of linen and an embroidered sash.

   For Aaron's sons, make tunics and sashes. Also make them hats that are both dignified and beautiful.

   Place these [vestments] on Aaron and his sons. Then anoint them, and install them, sanctifying them to be priests to Me.

   Also make linen pants to cover their nakedness, reaching from their waists to their thighs.

   [All these vestments] must be worn by Aaron and his sons whenever they enter the Communion Tent or offer sacrifice on the altar, performing the divine service in the sanctuary; otherwise they will have committed a sin and they will die. This shall be a law for [Aaron] and his descendants after him for all time.

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Consecration of the Priests

    This is what you, [Moses] must do to consecrate [Aaron and his sons] as priests to Me.

    Take a young bull, two unblemished rams, loaves of unleavened bread, unleavened loaves kneaded with olive oil, and flat matzahs brushed with olive oil. All [the cakes] must be made of fine wheat flour. Place [all the cakes] in a basket, and bring them in the basket along with the young bull and the two rams.

    Bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the Communion Tent, and immerse them in a mikvah.  

    Take the vestments and place the tunic, the ephod's robe, the ephod and the breastplate on Aaron. Bind him with the ephod's belt. Then place the turban on his head, and place the sacred plate [below] the turban.

   Take the anointing oil, pour [a little] on [Aaron's] head, and anoint him.

   Bring forth. [Aaron's] sons and dress them with the [linen] tunics. His sons shall wear belts, just like Aaron, and they shall also wear hats.

   You shall thus install Aaron and his sons [as priests, and this procedure] shall remain a law for all time.

   Bring the young bull before the Communion Tent, and have Aaron and his sons place their hands on the bull's head. Slaughter the bull before God, at the door of the Communion Tent. Take the bull's blood and place it on the altar's protrusions with your finger. Spill all the [remainir] blood on the altar's foundation.

   Take all the fat that covers the inner organs, as well as the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys with the fat around them, and burn them on the altar.  You must burn the bull's flesh, along with its skin and the food in its intestines, outside the camp. It is a sin offering.

   Take the first ram and have Aaron and his sons place their hands on its head. When you then slaughter the ram, take its blood and sprinkle it on all sides of the altar. Cut the ram into pieces. Then wash off its intestines and legs, and place them together with the cut up pieces [of the ram] and its head. Burn the entire ram on the altar; it is a burnt offering to God. It shall thus be an appeasing fragrance, a fire-offering to God.
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   Take the second ram, and have Aaron and his sons place their hands on its head. When you then slaughter the ram, take its blood and place some of it on the right ear lobe of Aaron and his sons, as well as on their right thumbs and right big toes. Sprinkle the [remaining] blood on all sides of the altar.

   Collect the blood that is on the altar, and [together] with the anointing oil, sprinkle it on Aaron and his vestments, as well as on his sons and their vestments. This will consecrate [Aaron] and his vestments, as well as his sons and their vestments.

   Take the [intestinal] fat of the [second] ram, along with its broad tail, the fatty layer covering the stomachs, the lobe of the liver, the two kidneys together with their fat, and the right hind leg, since this ram is an installation [offering]. [Also take] one cake of [unleavened] bread, one loaf of oil bread, and one flat cake from the basket of unleavened bread that is before God.

   Place all [these items] onto the open hands of Aaron and his sons, and have them wave [these items] in the prescribed motions of a wave offering before God. Then take [these items] from their hands and burn them on the altar after the [first ram which is a] burnt offering. Let it be an appeasing fragrance before God, since it is a fire offering to God.

   Take the breast of Aaron's installation ram, and wave it in the motions prescribed for a wave offering. This shall be your portion, [Moses].

   Sanctify the breast of the wave offering and the hind leg of the uplifted offering [for all time]. These are the parts of the installation ram of Aaron and his sons that were waved with the prescribed horizontal and vertical motions. It shall be a law for all times that this be an offering for Aaron and his sons from the Israelites, taken from their peace offerings as a priestly offering to God.

   Aaron's sacred vestments shall [also] be passed down to his descendants after him to give them special status and to install them. The descendant who takes [Aaron's] place to enter the Communion Tent and perform the divine service in the [inner] sanctuary must [first] put on [these vestments] for seven [consecutive] days.

   Take the [rest of the] installation ram and cook its flesh in a sanctified area. Aaron and his sons shall eat the ram's meat along with the bread in the basket near the entrance of the Communion Tent. They will gain atonement by eating [these offerings], and they will thus be installed to their consecrated rank.

   [These offerings] are sacred, and therefore may not be eaten by any outsider. If any meat of the installation offering or any of the bread is left over until morning, you must burn the leftovers in the fire. Since it is consecrated, it may not be eaten.

   Do exactly as I have instructed you for Aaron and his sons. Their installation shall take seven days.

   Sacrifice a young bull as a sin offering each day for atonement. By sprinkling [the blood of this offering] on the altar, you will atone for [any misdeed associated with making] it, and by anointing it you will sanctify it. For [all] seven days, you shall make such atonement for the altar and sanctify it, thus making the altar holy of holies. Anything that touches the altar will therefore become sanctified.

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Consecrating the Altar

   This is what you must do for the altar:                                                             

  [Offer] two yearling sheep each day consecutively. The first sheep shall be offered in the morning, and the second sheep in the afternoon.

   Offer 1/10 ephah fine flour mixed with 1/4 hin pressed olive oil, and a libation of 1/4 hin wine, with the first sheep. Offer the second sheep in the afternoon along with a meal offering and libation just like that of [the sheep] offered in the morning. It shall then be an appeasing fragrance to God.

   This shall also be the continual burnt offering for all generations. [It shall be offered] before God at the entrance of the Communion Tent, the place where I commune with [all the people] by speaking with you there.

   It is there that I will commune with the Israelites, and [the tabernacle] will thus be sanctified with My glory. I will sanctify the Communion Tent and the altar, and I will also sanctify Aaron and his sons to be priests to Me.

   I will make My presence felt among the Israelites, and I will be a God for them. They will realize that I, God their Lord, brought them out of Egypt to make My presence felt among them. I am God their Lord.

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The Incense Altar

   Make an altar to bum incense out of acacia wood. It shall be square, a cubit long and a cubit wide, and a cubits high, including its horns. Cover it with a layer of pure gold, on its top, its walls all around, and its horns. Make a gold rim all around it.

   Place two gold rings under [the altar's] rim on its two opposite sides as receptacles to hold the poles with which it is carried. Make the carrying poles out of acacia wood and cover them with a layer of gold.

   Place [this altar] in front of the cloth partition concealing the Testimony Ark - before the cloth partition concealing the testimony area where I commune with you.

   Aaron shall burn incense on [this altar] each morning when he cleans out the lamps. He shall [also] burn [incense] before evening when he lights the lamps. Thus, for all generations, there will be incense before God at all times.

   Do not burn any unauthorized incense on it. Furthermore, do not offer any animal sacrifice, meal offering, or libation on it.
 
  [Furthermore,] once each year Aaron shall make atonement on the horns of [this altar]. For all generations, he shall make atonement with the blood of the atonement sacrifice once each year.

[This altar] shall be a holy of holies to God.

 Б-г сказал Моше, чтобы он повелел евреям приносить к Шатру откровения чистое оливковое масло для светильника (меноры). Он также велел Моше позаботиться об изготовлении одежд для Аарона-первосвященника. Необходимо было сделать хошен (нагрудную пластину), эйфод, мантию, клетчатый хитон, тюрбан, пояс, перевязь, венец (налобную пластину) и льняные штаны. После изготовления священных одежд, Моше должен был совершить семидневный обряд посвящения Аарона и его сыновей. Этот обряд включал жертвоприношения, облачение Аарона и его сыновей в священные одежды и помазание маслом.

Б-г повелел, чтобы каждый день утром и после полудня на жертвеннике в святилище приносился в жертву ягненок. Эта жертва должна была сопровождаться хлебным даром и возлиянием вина. Б-г также повелел, чтобы жертвенник для воскурений был изготовлен из дерева акации и покрыт золотом. Аарон и его потомки должны были совершать на этом жертвеннике ежедневные воскурения.

 

 

Rav Yitzchak Zilber (in Russian) Rabbi Dovid Grossman (in English)