Bereshis

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Rav Zilber in Russian
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The Torah begins by stating that in the beginning Hashem created from nothingness the heaven and the earth. However, the world was yet void and without shape or order. During the first six days Hashem shaped, made and placed everything in the universe into its proper functioning position. The order of this Divine task was as follows:

First Day - Creation of light and darkness. Second Day - Arrangement of "Rokiah" to separate between the heavenly and earthly waters. Third Day - Accumulation of the waters allowing the dry land to be visible. Fourth Day - Creation and placement of sun and moon in the sky. Fifth Day-Creation of sea life and birds. Sixth Day -Creation of reptiles, animals, and finally man. On the Seventh Day of creation, Hashem "rested" from His work, and sanctified the seventh day as the Shabbos.

Hashem decided that it is not good for man to be alone. He brought all the animals and birds before Adam. Adam gave names to all of them, but could find no mate for himself among them. Hashem, therefore, put a deep sleep upon Adam. He split Adam in two parts, took a second part, making it into a woman, and brought her before Adam. Hashem placed them in the Garden of Eden where they could eat from anything, save the forbidden fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. However, Chava fell under the influence of the sneaky serpent and ate of the forbidden fruit and gave some to Adam as well. As a result, they were forced to leave the Garden of Eden and begin the lives of humans, as we know it, experiencing the hardship of working for their living and the sufferings of childbirth. The serpent’s punishment was having to crawl on the ground and to eat the dust of the earth.

Adam and Chava gave birth to two sons: Cain, who became a tiller of the land, and Hevel, who became a shepherd. Both Cain and Hevel brought offerings of their produce to Hashem. Hevel was sincere in his offering and brought before Hashem from his first-born and from the best of his flock. On the other hand, Cain was insincere and brought his worst produce. Hashem accepted Hevel's offering and a fire came down from heaven burning his offering; but not so to Cain's offering. Cain was greatly angered and highly embarrassed. While they were in the field, Cain killed Hevel, his brother.

Asked by Hashem the whereabouts of his brother, Cain replied, "Am I my brother's keeper?" Hashem punished Cain severely for his actions. Cain was cursed and as penalty was forced to be a wanderer over the face of the earth.

Adam and Chava gave birth to a third son, Sheis, as well as additional children. As each new generation reproduced, the numbers of mankind increased.

There were ten generations from Adam till Noach. Slowly people turned to evil and practiced immorality and violence. Hashem began reconsidering His act of populating the world with mankind. Noach, however, Noach found favor in His eyes.

1st Alliya
2nd Aliya
3rd Alilya
4th Aliya
5th Aliya
6th Aliya
7th Aliya
 

Creation, the First Day

In the beginning God created heaven and earth. The earth was without form and empty, with darkness on the face of the depths, but God's spirit moved on the water's surface. God said, "There shall be light," and light came into existence. God saw that the light was good, and God divided between the light and the darkness. God named the light "Day," and the darkness He named "Night." It was evening and it was morning, one day.

The Second Day

God said, "There shall be a sky in the middle of the water, and it shall divide between water and water." God [thus] made the sky, and it separated the water below the sky from the water above the sky. It remained that way. God named the sky “Heaven”. It was evening and it was morning, a second day.

The Third Day

God said, "The waters under the heaven shall be gathered to one place, and dry land shall be seen." It happened. God named the dry land "Earth," and the gatherings of water, He named "Seas." God saw that it was good.

God said, "The earth shall send forth vegetation. Seedbearing plants and fruit trees that produce their own kinds of fruits with seeds shall be on the earth." It happened.The earth sent forth vegetation, plants bearing their own kinds of seeds, and trees producing fruits containing their own kinds of seeds. God saw that it was good. It was evening and it was morning, a third day.

The Fourth Day

God said, "There shall be lights in the heavenly sky to divide between day and night. They shall serve as omens [and define] festivals, days and years. They shall be lights in the heavenly sky, to shine on the earth." It happened. God [thus] made the two large lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the smaller light to rule the night. [He also made] the stars. God placed them in the heavenly sky to shine on the earth, to rule by day and by night, and to divide between the light and the darkness. God saw that it was good. It was evening and it was morning, a fourth day.

The Fifth Day

God said, "The water shall teem with swarms of living creatures. Flying creatures shall fly over the land, on the face of the heavenly sky ". God [thus] created the great sea monsters, along with every particular species of living thing that crawls, with which the waters teem, and every particular species of winged flying creature. God saw that it was good. God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and become many, and fill the waters of the seas. Let the flying creatures multiply on the land." It was evening and it was Morning, a fifth day.

The Sixth Day

God said, "The earth shall bring forth particular species of living creatures, particular species of livestock, land animals," and beasts of the earth." It happened. God [thus] made particular species of beasts of the earth, particular species of livestock, and particular species of animals that walk the land. God saw that it was good.

God said, "Let us make man with our image and likeness. Let him dominate the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the livestock animals, and all the earth-and every land animal that walks the earth." God [thus] created man with His image. In the image of God, He created him, male and female He created them. God blessed them. God said to them, "Be fertile and become many." Fill the land and conquer it. Dominate the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, and every beast that walks the land.

God said, "Behold, I have given you every seedbearing plant on the face of the earth, and every tree that has seedbearing fruit. It shall be to you for food. For every beast of the field, every bird of the sky, and everything that walks the land, that, has in it a living soul, all plant vegetation shall be food." It remained that way. God saw all that he had made, and behold, it was very good. It was evening and it was morning, the sixth day.

The Sabbath

Heaven and earth, and all their components, were [thus] completed. With the seventh day, God finished all the work that He had done. He [thus] ceased" on the seventh day from all the work that He had been doing. God blessed the seventh day, and He declared it to be holy, for it was on this day that God ceased from all the work that He had been creating [so that it would continue] to function.

Man

These are the chronicles of heaven and earth when they were created, on the day God completed earth and heaven.

All the wild shrubs did not yet exist on the earth, and all the wild plants had not yet sprouted. This was because God had not brought rain on the earth, and there was no man to work the ground. A mist rose up from the earth, and it watered the entire surface of the ground. God formed man out of dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils a breath of life. Man [thus] became a living creature. God planted a garden in Eden to the east. There He placed the man that He had formed. God made grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to look at and good to eat, [including] the Tree of Life in the middle of the garden, and the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil.

A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden. From there it divided and became four major rivers. The name of the first is Pishon. It surrounds the entire land of Havilah  where gold is found. The gold of that land is [especially] good. Also found there are pearls and precious stones. The name of the second river is Gibon. It surrounds the land of Gush. The name of the third river is the Tigris which flows to the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

God took the man and placed him in the Garden of Eden to work it and watch it. God gave the man a commandment, saying, "you may definitely eat from every tree of the garden. But from the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, do not eat, for on the day you eat from it, you will definitely die." God said, "It is not good for man to be alone. I will make a compatible helper for him." God had formed every wild beast and every bird of heaven out of the ground. He [now] brought [them] to the man to see what he would name each one. Whatever the man called each living thing [would] remain its name.

 

The man named every livestock animal and bird of the sky, as well as all the wild beasts. But the man did not find a helper who was compatible for him.

God then made the man fall into a deep state of unconsciousness, and he slept. He took one of his sides and closed the flesh in its place. God built the side that he took from the man into a woman, and He brought her to the man. The man said, "Now this is bone from my bones and flesh from my flesh. She shall be called Woman (ishah) because she was taken from man (ish)."A man shall therefore leave his father and mother and be united with his wife, and they shall become one flesh.

The man and his wife were both naked, but they were not embarrassed by one another. The serpent was the most cunning of all the wild beasts that God had made. [The serpent] asked the woman, "bid God really say that you may not eat from any of the trees of the garden?"
The woman replied to the serpent, "We may eat from the fruit of the trees of the garden. But of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, God said, 'Do not eat it, and do not [even] touch it, or else you will die". The serpent said to the woman, "You will certainly not die! Really, God knows that on the day you eat from it, your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil."

The woman saw that the tree was good to eat and desirable to the eyes, and that the tree was attractive as a means to gain intelligence. She took some of its fruit and ate [it]. She also gave some to her husband, and he ate [it]. The eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized that they were naked. They sewed together fig leaves, and made themselves loincloths.

They heard God's voice moving about in the garden with the wind of the day. The man and his wife hid themselves from God among the trees of the garden. God called to the man, and He said, "Where are you [trying to hide]?"
"I heard Your voice in the garden," replied [the man], "and I was afraid because I was naked. so I hid."
 [God] asked, "Who told you that you are naked? Did you eat from the tree which I commanded you not to eat?"
The man replied, "The woman that you gave to be with me-she gave me what I ate from the tree."
God said to the woman, "What is this that you have done?" The woman replied, "The serpent seduced me and I ate [it]."
God said to the serpent, "Because you did this, cursed are you more than all the livestock and all the wild beasts. On your belly you shall crawl, and dust you shall eat; all the days of your life. I will plant hatred between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring. He will strike you in the head, and you will strike him in the heel."

The Woman's Curse

To the woman He said, "I will greatly increase your anguish and your pregnancy. It will be with anguish that you will give birth to children. Your passion will be to your husband, and he will dominate you."

Man's Curse

To Adam He said, "you listened to your wife, and ate from the tree regarding which I specifically gave you orders, saying, 'Do not eat from it.' The ground will therefore be cursed because of you. You will derive food from it with anguish all the days of your life. It will bring forth thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the grass of the field. By the sweat of your brow you will eat bread. Finally you will return to the ground, for it was from [the ground] that you were taken. You are dust, and to dust you shall return." The man named his wife Eve, because she was the mother of all life. God made leather garments for Adam and his wife and He clothed them.

 

The Expulsion

God said, "Man has now become like one of us in knowing good and evil. Now he must be prevented from putting forth his hand and also taking from the Tree of Life. He [can] eat it and live forever!" God banished [man] from the Garden of Eden, to work the ground from which he was taken. He drove away the man, and stationed the cherubim at the east of Eden, along with the revolving sword blade, to guard the path of the Tree of Life.

Cain and Abel

The man knew his wife Eve. She conceived and gave birth to Cain. She said, "I have gaineda man with God." She gave birth again, this time to his brother Abel. Abel became a shepherd, while Cain was a worker of the soil.

An era ended. Cain brought some of his crops as an offering to God. Abel also offered some of the firstborn of his flock, from the fattest ones. God paid heed to Abel and his offering, but to Cain and his offering, He paid no heed. Cain became very furious and depressed. God said to Cain, "Why are you so furious? Why are you depressed ? If you do good, will there not be special privilege ? And if you do not do good, sin is crouching at the door. It lusts after you, but you can dominate it."

Cain said [something] to his brother Abel. Then, when they happened to be in the field, Cain rose up against his brother Abel, and killed him. God asked Cain, "Where is your brother Abel?"
"I do not know," replied [Cain]. "Am I my brother's keeper?"
God said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood is screaming to Me from the ground. Now you are cursed from the ground that opened its mouth to take your brother's blood from your hand. When you work the ground, it will no longer give you of its strength. You will be restless and isolated in the world.

Cain said, "My sin is too great to bear! Behold, today You have banished me from the face of the earth, and I am to be hidden from Your face. I am to be restless and isolated in the world, and whoever finds me will kill me.

God said to him, "Indeed! Whoever kills Cain will be punished seven times as much. God placed a mark on Cain so that whoever would find him would not kill him. Cain went out from before God's presence. He settled in the land of Nod, to the east of Eden.

Cain knew his wife. She conceived and gave birth to Enoch. [Cain] was building a city, and he named the city Enoch, after his son. Enoch had a son Irad. Irad had a son Mechuyael. Mechuyael had a son Methushael. Methushael had a son Lemekh.

 
Lemekh married two women. The first one's name was Adah, and the Filth second one's name was Tzillah. Adah gave birth to Yaval. He was the ancestor of all those who live in tents and keep herds. His brother's name wasYuval. He was the ancestor of all who play the harp and flute. Tzillah alsohad a son, Tuval Cain, a maker of all copper and iron implements. Tuval Cain's sister was Naamah. 

 

Lemekh said to his wives Adah and Tzillah, hear my voice; wives of Sixth Lemekh, listen to my speech. I have killed a man by wounding [him], and a Reading child by bruising [him]. If Cain shall be revenged seven times, then for Lemekh it shall be seventy-seven times."

Adam knew his wife again, and she gave birth to a son. She named him Seth. Because God has granted (shath) me other offspring in place of Abel, whom Cain had killed." A son was also born to Seth, and [Seth] named him Enosh. It was then initiated to pray with God's name.

The First and Second Generations

This is the book of the Chronicles of Adam: On the day that God created man, He made him in the likeness of God. He created them male and female. He blessed them and named them Man (Adam) on the day that they were created. Adam lived 130 years, and he had a son in his likeness and form. He named him Seth. Adam lived 800 years after he had Seth, and he had sons and daughters. All the days that Adam lived were 930 years, and he died.

The Third Generation

Seth lived 105 years, and he had a son Enosh. Seth lived 807 years after he had Enosh, and he had sons and daughters. All of Seth's days were 912 years, and he died.

The Fourth Generation

Enosh lived 90 years, and he had a son Kenan. Enosh lived 815 years after he had Kenan, and he had sons and daughters. All of Enosh's days were 905 years, and he died.

The Fifth Generation

Kenan lived 70 years, and he had a son Mahalalel. Kenan lived 840 years after he had Mahalalel, and he had sons and daughters. All of Kenan's days were 910 years, and he died.

The Sixth Generation

Mahalalellived 65 years, and he had a son Yered. Mahalalellived 830 years after he had Yered, and he had sons and daughters. All of Mahalalel ' s days were 895 years, and he died.

The Seventh Generation

Yered lived 162 years, and he had a son Enoch." Yered lived 800 years after he had Enoch, and he had sons and daughters. All ofYered's days were 962 years, and he died.

The Eighth Generation

Enoch lived 65 years, and he had a son Methuselah. Enoch walked with God for 300 years after he had Methuselah, and he had sons and daughters. All of Enoch's days were 365 years. Enoch walked with God, and he was no more, because God had taken him.

 

The Ninth Generation

Methuselah lived 187 years, and he had a son Lemekh. Methuselah lived 782 years after he had Lemekh, and he had sons and daughters. All of Methuselah's days were 969 years, and he died.

The Tenth Generation

Lemekh lived 182 years, and he had a son. He named him Noah, saying, "This one will bring us relief from our work and the anguish of our hands, from the soil that God has cursed." Lemekh lived 595 years after he had Noah, and he had sons and daughters. All of Lemekh's days were 177 years, and he died.

Noah's Children and the Titans

Noah was 500 years old, and Noah fathered Shem, Ham, and Yefeth." Man began to increase on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them. The sons of God" saw that the daughters of man were good, and they took themselves wives from whomever they chose. God said, "My spirit will not continue to judge man forever, since he is nothing but flesh. His days shall be 120 years." The titans were on the earth in those days and also later. The sons of God had come to the daughters of man and had fathered them. [The titans] were the mightiest ones who ever existed, men of renown.

The Decree

God saw that man's wickedness on earth was increasing. Every impulse of his innermost thought was only for evil, all day long. God regretted that He had made man on earth, and He was pained to His very core. God said, "I will obliterate humanity that I have created from the face of the earth- man, livestock, land animals, and birds of the sky. I regret that I created them." But Noah found favor in God's eyes.


 
В начале Б-г сотворил из ничего все мироздание, в том числе и время как таковое. В течение шести дней Творение было завершено, достигнув совершенства, а на седьмой день Б-г пребывал в покое, тем самым дав начало миру нематериального - Субботе, возвращающейся через каждые семь дней.


Адам и Хава, прародители человечества, были помещены Б-гом в Сад Эдена. Змей соблазнил Хаву вкусить запретный плод с Древа познания добра и зла, а та, в свою очередь, дала отведать от него Адаму. Нарушение Б-жественной заповеди так изменило их, что оставаться в Эдене, мире духовного блаженства, для Адама и Хавы было больше невозможно, и они изгнаны оттуда навсегда. [С этого момента в мир входит смерть, тяжкий (физически и духовно) труд, вкупе с родовыми муками и отчаянными усилиями исправить грех Адама и Хавы, что и станет содержанием всей истории человечества.]

Каин и Авель (Гевель), двое первых детей Адама и Хавы, приносят Б-гу дары. Авель отдал самых лучших овец из своего стада, и Б-г благоволил к его дару, а Каин принес в дар рядовые плоды земледелия и не удостоился благоволения. В последовавшей за этим ссоре Каин убил Авеля, за что был проклят Б-гом и осужден на вечное изгнание и скитание по земле. В Торе прослеживается генеалогия другиx детей Адама и Хавы, а также потомков Каина, вплоть до рождения Ноаxа. После смерти Шета человечество погрязло во зле, и Б-г решил навести на мир потоп и истребить все живое. Один только Ноаx снискал милость в глазаx Б-га.


Тора начинается с рассказа о сотворении мира и сразу сообщает нам, что мир создан из абсолютного “ничего”. Первая книга Торы, как и первая недельная глава этой книги, так и называются — “Брешит” (“В начале”).

“В начале сотворил Б-г небо и землю. А земля была пуста и хаотична, и тьма над бездной, и дуновение Б-жье витает над водами. И сказал Б-г: да будет свет. И стал свет. И увидел Б-г свет, что он хорош, и отделил Б-г свет от тьмы. И назвал Б-г свет днем, а тьму назвал ночью. И был вечер, и было утро: день один” (1:1-5).

На иврите “небо” — “шамаим”, “земля” — “арец”. В Торе написано: “Брешит бара Элоким эт а-шамаим веэт а-арец”. “Эт” — предлог, который означает не только винительный падеж, но и присоединение, подобно предлогу “с”. Т.е. “эт а-шамаим” следует понимать как небо и все, что связано с данным понятием, все, что вне земли: солнце, планеты, звезды, кометы, галактики, атомы водорода, кислорода и т.д., а “эт а-арец” — как землю и все, что на земле: воду и пр.

Первое слово в Торе — слово “брешит”, а первая в ней буква — буква “бет”. В любом издании, в каждом свитке Торы, какой бы мы ни взяли в руки, — эта буква в этом слове в этом месте больше соседних по размеру. Человек, читающий только на иврите, никак, конечно, не может предположить, что это заглавная буква, ну а нам придется напомнить себе, что в иврите нет прописных и строчных букв. Так что же тогда? Почему “бет” больше других букв? В тексте Торы прихоти исключены — ее написание, как и мелодика чтения каждого ее стиха, строго следуют традиции, которой уже около 3300 лет, и каждая деталь традиции имеет объяснение. Значит, если “бет” выделена, это не случайно. Она должна нам что-то подсказать.

Человеческий ум ограничен. Есть вещи, понять которые нам не дано. Может ли котенок разобраться в устройстве самолета? Может ли муравей осмыслить поведение человека? Есть граница и возможностям нашего разума. При всей способности абстрагировать, в конечном итоге мы обобщаем лишь то, что видим, слышим, осязаем, т.е. то, что ощущаем нашими органами чувств. Может ли наш мозг сформировать представление о том, что было до сотворения мира? Мы материальны, а формы существования материи — время и пространство. Поэтому бесполезны попытки представить себе, что было до начала времен, или понять, где кончается пространство. Об этом и говорит нам буква “бет”. Закрытая сверху, снизу и справа и открытая слева (по ходу чтения строки в Торе), она показывает, что мы находимся внутри сотворенного мира и потому можем представить себе то, что было после, но не до его сотворения.

Говоря об акте творения, Тора пользуется словом “бара”. Этот глагол означает сотворение из ничего, создание чего-то абсолютно нового, никогда прежде не существовавшего. Интересно, однако, что в главе “Брешит” это слово употреблено лишь трижды. В первый раз “бара” сказано в первом стихе и подразумевает сотворение материи. Во второй раз — “и сотворил (ваивра) Б-г больших морских животных” (1:21) — там, где речь идет о сотворении жизни; Б-г создал животных, обладающих животной душой. А в третий раз — “и сотворил Б-г человека” (1:27) — говорится о создании существа, у которого, кроме обычной жизни, как у всех животных, есть еще Б-жественная душа, сохраняющаяся и после смерти.

Что значит слово “бездна” во втором стихе главы? Это проемы в земле, где потом скопилась вода в виде морей и подземных источников.
Особо отметим слова “дуновение Б-жье”. Ими вводится представление о движении. Так что если в первом стихе речь идет о сотворении материи, то во втором — о сотворении движения.

Мне вспоминается декабрь 1943 года. Война привела в Казань, где я тогда жил, массу ученых — чуть не всю Академию наук СССР во главе с самим президентом — Сергеем Ивановичем Вавиловым. Отмечали трехсотлетие со дня рождения Ньютона. На торжественном заседании было четыре доклада: “Эфир, строение материи, свет по Ньютону” — Вавилова, “Математические работы Ньютона” — моего учителя Николая Григорьевича Чеботарева, “Строение Луны по Ньютону” — Идельсона и “Портреты Ньютона” — Герасимова.

Особенно интересен и глубок был доклад Вавилова. Начал он примерно так: “При мысли о гениальности Ньютона волосы встают дыбом! Триста лет назад человек столько предвидел в науке!” Потом академик много цитировал из книги Ньютона “Математические начала натуральной философии” и среди прочего прочел: “В любом месте Вселенной между двумя точками всегда действуют силы: притяжения или отталкивания, электрические или химические. В этом я вижу вездесущие Б-га”.

Помню, я вздрогнул: рискнуть произнести такое! Что стоило Вавилову опустить эту фразу или, по крайней мере, добавить, что тут Ньютон отдает дань взглядам своего времени. Но он ничего не опустил и ничего не добавил. И я подумал: “Вся земля полна славы Его!” (Ишаяhу, 6:3) — мир сам поет славу своему Творцу.

Вернемся к третьему стиху.

“И сказал Б-г (в смысле — приказал, велел, и Его воля исполнилась): да будет свет. И стал свет” (1:3).

Люди лишь сравнительно недавно поняли, что свет — это проявление глубинного внутриатомного процесса, когда при переходе электрона с одной орбиты на другую квантами выделяется энергия в виде света. Ученые считают, что на солнце постоянно происходят термоядерные реакции. Ежесекундно 4 000 000 тонн массы переходят в энергию, и это — источник солнечного света и тепла. Значит, мы можем предположить, что как только “сотворил Б-г небо”, т.е. солнце, звезды и все остальные небесные тела, они стали светить. Но нет. Тора говорит нам, что процессы выделения света начались только в четвертый день. И потому существует принципиальная разница между светом в первые три дня творения и светом потом. В первые три дня после 12 часов абсолютной темноты всю землю на 12 часов как бы окутывал световой слой. А начиная с четвертого дня творения часть земли, обращенная к солнцу, постоянно оставалась освещенной. Возможно, именно об этом говорит псалом 104:2: “Окутал светом, как плащом, простер небеса, как завесу”.

Таким образом, в первый день были сотворены материя, движение и свет и установлено четкое разделение между светом и тьмой в виде дня и ночи.

“И сказал Б-г: да будет свод внутри воды, и будет он отделять воды от вод. И сделал Б-г свод, и отделил воды, которые под сводом, от вод, которые над сводом. И стало так. И назвал Б-г свод небом. И был вечер, и было утро: день второй” (1:6-8).

В этих строках скрыто много тайн Торы. Но мы попробуем понять хотя бы смысл перевода. О каком своде идет речь? Ведь небеса были сотворены в первый день, а тут сказано, что небом назван именно этот свод?

Свод, созданный во второй день, отделяет “верхние воды” от “нижних вод”. Это можно понять так. Как известно, пространство между землей и солнцем, а также между звездами заполнено разреженным водородом. Частицы разреженного водорода могут быть названы “верхними водами”, а вода на земле — буквально вода — “нижними водами”. Что же тогда представляет собой разделяющий их “свод”?

Здесь Тора рассказывает нам, как Б-г создал условия для жизни, которая будет сотворена впоследствии. Она не рассказывает о тех мирах, что не имеют к нам отношения. Свод, созданный во второй день, — это атмосфера. Б-г сгустил частицы азота, кислорода и водорода и создал газовую смесь, которая и окружает земной шар со всех сторон, как свод. Ею дышит все живое. Причем в нижних слоях атмосферы больше кислорода (около 20 процентов), а в верхних — в основном водород. То, что воздушная атмосфера не редеет и не рассеивается, — чудо. Об этом и говорят слова Торы: “И стало так” (1:7), т.е. стало навсегда.

Мидраш интересно трактует слово “шамаим” (“небо”) как эш плюс маим, т.е. огонь плюс вода. Он указывает, что Б-г соединил огонь с водой, и это стало сводом, окутывающим земной шар (1:8). Огонь — это кислород, ведь горение — реакция соединения с кислородом, а вода — водород, из которого, как мы уже говорили, в основном состоят верхние слои атмосферы-свода и отделенные им, сводом, “верхние воды”.
Раши пишет, что небеса, сотворенные в первый день, были сильно разрежены, и во второй день Б-г уплотнил их словами: да будет свод, т.е. на каком-то уровне сгустил их, создав вокруг земли атмосферу.

Итак, слово “шамаим” означает все, что вне земли, начиная со свода-атмосферы. Свод — только нижняя часть небес, но шамаим есть и выше, и выше. Как сказано: “Ведь [в руках] Б-га небо и небеса небес, земля и все, что на ней” (Дварим, 10:14).

И как удивительно надежно атмосфера защищает все живое от уничтожения! Она предохраняет землю от охлаждения ночью и от перегрева — днем. На высоте до 70 километров она содержит слой озона, который не пропускает идущие от солнца ультрафиолетовые лучи, вредные для глаз и для жизни многих мелких животных.

Из космоса несутся смертельно опасные излучения: икс-лучи, гамма-лучи, летят губительные для жизни альфа-частицы, протоны и электроны. Но начиная с 70 километров над землей и выше (до 500 километров) располагается слой, который называется ионосферой (он состоит из ионов). Этот слой задерживает и нейтрализует опасные излучения и частицы.

От солнца со скоростью 300-600 км/сек мчатся электроны. К счастью, у земного шара имеется магнитосфера, замедляющая их полет и направляющая его к полюсам, где они нейтрализуются.

Интересно отметить — сравнительно недавно даже в научной литературе (и в бывшем СССР, и на Западе) вполне внятно заговорили, что все теории о происхождении Вселенной не выдерживают проверки ни с точки зрения математики, ни с точки зрения физики.

Rav Yitzchak Zilber (in Russian) Rabbi Dovid Grossman